Actualizado 02 de Mayo 2023

Durante el embarazo, el ejercicio puede ayudarte a mantenerte en forma y a estar preparada para el trabajo de parto y el parto.

Si no habías hecho ejercicio durante el primer trimestre, inicia ahora con una rutina suave.

Los estudios demuestran que las embarazadas que hacen algún tipo de ejercicio tienen menos probabilidad de tener un bebé prematuro.

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EMBARAZO Y EJERCICIO: OBTENER APROBACIÓN

Antes de comenzar un programa de ejercicios, asegúrate de contar con la autorización de tu proveedor de atención médica.

EJERCICIOS MODERADOS EN EL EMBARAZO

Para la mayoría de las mujeres embarazadas, se recomienda al menos 30 minutos de ejercicio de intensidad moderada en la mayoría de los días de la semana, si no es posible hacerlo todos los días.

Caminar es un gran ejercicio para principiantes. Proporciona un acondicionamiento aeróbico moderado con mínima tensión sobre las articulaciones.

Otras buenas opciones incluyen natación, ejercicios aeróbicos de bajo impacto y bicicleta fija. El entrenamiento de fuerza también está bien, siempre y cuando te mantengas con un peso relativamente bajo.

Recuerda calentarte, estirarte y enfriarte. Bebe mucho líquido para mantenerte hidratada y ten cuidado de evitar el sobrecalentamiento.

En general, debes ser capaz de mantener una conversación mientras haces ejercicio.

Si no puedes hablar normalmente mientras te ejercitas, probablemente te estés exigiendo demasiado.

En función de tu nivel de condición física, considera estas pautas:

Hace tiempo que no haces ejercicio. Comienza con tan solo 10 minutos de actividad física por día. Aumenta hasta llegar a 15 minutos, 20 minutos, y así sucesivamente, hasta que alcances por lo menos 30 minutos al día.

Hacías ejercicio antes del embarazo. Probablemente puedas seguir haciendo ejercicio al mismo nivel mientras estés embarazada, siempre y cuando te sientas cómoda y tu médico te diga que está bien.

 

EJERCITÁNDOTE EN EL SEGUNDO TRIMESTRE

En el segundo trimestre es probable que ya te sientas mucho mejor y podrás aumentar el tiempo que dedicas al ejercicio

Si ya estabas acostumbrada a hacer ejercicio desde antes del embarazo, entonces es probable que puedas continuar utilizando el mismo sostén hasta el final del primer trimestre, pero ahora te darás cuenta de que necesitas usar una talla mayor.

Usa una vestimenta cómoda y holgada y pónte un sujetador adecuado para protegerte los pechos.

Si disfrutas haciendo un largo ejercicio, pon atención a las señales de tu cuerpo y detente cuando te sientas cansada.

La mayoría se siente cómoda en 30 minutos de actividad física moderada (como caminar y nadar).

¿QUÉ TIPOS DE EJERCICIO PUEDO REALIZAR EN ESTE TRIMESTRE?

Las actividades aeróbicas como caminar, correr o nadar, las técnicas de relajación y el entrenamiento de fuerza, son actividades propias del segundo trimestre del embarazo siempre y cuando tengas en cuenta tus límites y sigas unas simples reglas de seguridad.

Aun cuando no te hayas ejercitado antes del embarazo o durante el primer trimestre, puedes, con toda seguridad, empezar ahora con una rutina simple; una de las mejores formas es a través de la caminata o la natación.

Si sientes que tienes problema con el equilibrio, considera suspender cualquier ejercicio en el que te puedas caer.

Es mejor que hagas natación, aerobics acuáticos, o bicicleta estacionaria que no te demandan mucho equilibrio.

  • Si estás acostumbrada a hacer aerobics con escalón, asegúrate de que no tiene más de 10 centímetros de alto a menos de que estés segura de tu equilibrio.

Dado que tu bebé está creciendo, se ha vuelto vulnerable a los golpes que te puedas dar (o que te puedan dar) en el abdomen y es por esto que tu médico te pedirá que evites todo lo que signifique ejercicio de contacto como puede ser futbol, básquetbol, voleibol, etc.

Remar es un ejercicio que exige demasiado de tu energía durante el resto del embarazo.

Si levantas pesas, no les exijas demasiado a los músculos de las piernas porque estas máquinas tienden a poner demasiado esfuerzo en los ligamentos de la pelvis y esto te va a causar dolor.

Si estás haciendo yoga, suspende las vueltas hacia atrás y cualquier movimiento que implique que estés acostada sobre tu espalda, estómago, brincos y posiciones invertidas.

Durante el embarazo, una hormona llamada “relaxina” relaja tus articulaciones y ligamentos para ayudar al parto.

Eso significa que tienes el riesgo de lastimarte porque tus ligamentos no te responderán como lo hacían antes del embarazo.

Yoga, caminata y natación, son los ejercicios más seguros para la mujer embarazada.

Caminar es un gran ejercicio durante el embarazo. No toma mucho esfuerzo, se puede hacer en cualquier lugar y te ayudará a mantenerte en el peso adecuado.

Trata de caminar diariamente media hora cuando menos, pero escucha a tu cuerpo, si te cansas antes, suspende.

Nadar es un ejercicio maravilloso que no es de impacto y que te ayuda a mantenerte en forma y tonifica tus músculos.

Puede ser especialmente beneficioso para aquéllas embarazadas que están luchando contra la hinchazón de las piernas que hacen que el caminar sea difícil.

No es necesario hacer un gran esfuerzo para que dé resultados y este es uno de los ejercicios que puedes continuar hasta el final del embarazo.

GUÍAS PARA EL EJERCICIO MES A MES

4to mes

Levantamiento de pesas: conforme inicias el segundo trimestre, tu volumen sanguíneo se ha incrementado y la placenta y el bebé están creciendo.

Cuando te paras, la sangre se puede acumular en tus piernas haciendo que te sientas mareada.

Es por esto que es más seguro que hagas este ejercicio sentado y que siempre mantengas tu respiración controlada para evitar lastimar tus músculos y vasos sanguíneos.

Trote y carrera: si eres una corredora, puedes continuar corriendo con moderación.

Durante el segundo trimestre tu útero ha crecido cambiando tu centro de gravedad.

Este cambio te puede hacer que pierdas el equilibrio y te caigas. Siempre corre en lugares planos y sin obstáculos.

Yoga: Conforme tu panza crece y tus articulaciones se aflojan, tu equilibrio se afecta y puedes lastimarte. Realiza nada más el ejercicio en el que te sientas cómoda.

Es probable también que te acomode más estar en una silla o usar la pared para balancearte cuando hagan las posiciones paradas.

Evita todas las poses que trabajen el abdomen o el piso pélvico y cámbialas por otras.

Natación y aeróbicos acuáticos: si eres nueva en la natación, empieza lentamente nadando por periodos cortos y no te sobre ejercites.

Los ejercicios aeróbicos moderados acuáticos pueden ser buenos incluso para las mujeres que no habían hecho ejercicio previamente.

5to mes

Al crecer tu abdomen puedes ver que tu centro de gravedad ha cambiado y que ya no estás tan ágil como antes.

Cuando llegas a las 20 semanas, debes evitar cualquier ejercicio que se requiera que te acuestes en tu espalda.

El útero agrandado puede presionar la vena cava inferior, la gran vena que corre verticalmente a lo largo de tu útero y que es responsable del regreso de la sangre al corazón.

Caminar: conforme cambia tu forma de caminar, asegúrate de concentrarte en tu postura cuando caminas y mantén las caderas apretadas hacia abajo para prevenir que tu espalda se curve por el peso que llevas al frente.

Cuando te falte el aire, disminuye el paso o para y descansa.

Yoga: Conforme avanza tu embarazo y tiene un mayor impacto en tu actividad, piensa en unirte a una clase de yoga que sea específica para embarazadas o compra un libro o un video.

Natación: Si eres una nadadora, debes de ser capaz de continuar nadando hasta el segundo trimestre sin dificultad.

Sexto mes

Tu volumen de sangre se incrementó en un 40 por ciento y tu trabajo cardiaco se aumentó en un 30 a 40 por ciento.

Durante el ejercicio, tus pulsaciones se incrementan aun más. Se recomienda moderación y que no te sobre esfuerces. Siempre mantente hidratada y fresca.

Levantamiento de pesas: disminuye la duración o la frecuencia de este ejercicio. Puede ser que te sientas más cómoda con pesas más ligeras.

Ten siempre cuidado de no lastimarte el abdomen.

Yoga: ya estás al final del segundo trimestre, puede ser que necesites un apoyo extra para tu equilibrio cuando hagas la posición parada.

Evita aquellas posiciones que estiran los músculos abdominales o que requieren que te acuestes en la espalda. Dóblate  desde las caderas. Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.

 

  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

5th Month

As your belly gets bigger, you may find that your center of gravity has shifted and you’re not as agile as you once were. Compensate by being more careful when you step. When you reach 20 weeks, you should stop exercises that require you to lie on your back (like some weight lifting or yoga poses). As your uterus increases in size, lying on your back can put pressure on the inferior vena cava, the large vein that runs vertically the length of your abdomen and is responsible for returning blood to the heart.

  • Walking: As your gait changes because of the changes in your body shape, be sure to focus on your posture when walking and keep your hips tucked under to prevent arching your back due to the increasing amount of weight you’re carrying in front. When you feel out of breath, slow down or stop and rest. You shouldn’t be huffing and puffing.
  • Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.
  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

5th Month

As your belly gets bigger, you may find that your center of gravity has shifted and you’re not as agile as you once were. Compensate by being more careful when you step. When you reach 20 weeks, you should stop exercises that require you to lie on your back (like some weight lifting or yoga poses). As your uterus increases in size, lying on your back can put pressure on the inferior vena cava, the large vein that runs vertically the length of your abdomen and is responsible for returning blood to the heart.

  • Walking: As your gait changes because of the changes in your body shape, be sure to focus on your posture when walking and keep your hips tucked under to prevent arching your back due to the increasing amount of weight you’re carrying in front. When you feel out of breath, slow down or stop and rest. You shouldn’t be huffing and puffing.
  • Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.
  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

5th Month

As your belly gets bigger, you may find that your center of gravity has shifted and you’re not as agile as you once were. Compensate by being more careful when you step. When you reach 20 weeks, you should stop exercises that require you to lie on your back (like some weight lifting or yoga poses). As your uterus increases in size, lying on your back can put pressure on the inferior vena cava, the large vein that runs vertically the length of your abdomen and is responsible for returning blood to the heart.

  • Walking: As your gait changes because of the changes in your body shape, be sure to focus on your posture when walking and keep your hips tucked under to prevent arching your back due to the increasing amount of weight you’re carrying in front. When you feel out of breath, slow down or stop and rest. You shouldn’t be huffing and puffing.
  • Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.
  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

4th Month

  • Weight training: As you begin your second trimester, your total blood volume has increased and the placenta and baby are growing. When you stand, blood can pool in your legs, causing you to become lightheaded or dizzy. For this reason it may be safer to do weight training exercises while seated. Always keep your breath steady during weight training to avoid straining your muscles and blood vessels.
  • Jogging and running: If you are a runner, you can safely continue to run in moderation. During your second trimester your uterus gets larger, causing your center of gravity to shift. This change makes you more likely to lose your balance. Run on flat ground with as few obstacles as possible.
  • Yoga: As you slowly get bigger and your joints loosen, your balance may be affected, putting you at risk of injury. Pay attention to your body and only do as much exercise as is comfortable. Your breathing should stay smooth, and if you find you cannot breathe easily and smoothly during positions, think about shifting into an easier version of the position, stretching or extending less, or staying closer to the floor. You may also wish to use a chair or wall for balance during standing poses. Leg lifts, back bends, lying on the belly, and poses that stress the abdomen or pelvic floor should also be avoided or modified by a teacher trained in prenatal yoga techniques (Plakans, n.d.).
  • Swimming and Water Aerobics: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you are new to swimming, start slowly by swimming gently for short periods of time, taking caution not to overexert yourself. Work up to longer workouts if you desire. Moderate water aerobics may also be helpful for previously inactive women (Baciuk, Pereira, Cecatti, Braga, & Cavalcante, 2008). This activity may even reduce your desire for analgesia during labor.

5th Month

As your belly gets bigger, you may find that your center of gravity has shifted and you’re not as agile as you once were. Compensate by being more careful when you step. When you reach 20 weeks, you should stop exercises that require you to lie on your back (like some weight lifting or yoga poses). As your uterus increases in size, lying on your back can put pressure on the inferior vena cava, the large vein that runs vertically the length of your abdomen and is responsible for returning blood to the heart.

  • Walking: As your gait changes because of the changes in your body shape, be sure to focus on your posture when walking and keep your hips tucked under to prevent arching your back due to the increasing amount of weight you’re carrying in front. When you feel out of breath, slow down or stop and rest. You shouldn’t be huffing and puffing.
  • Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.
  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

6th Month

Your blood volume increases by 40 percent during pregnancy and your cardiac output (heart rate times the amount of blood pumped per beat) increases by 30­–40 percent. During exercise, your heart rate increases even more. Although research shows that women who exercise regularly have no increased risk of problems with their pregnancies, the key is still moderation. Don’t push yourself too hard. Keep yourself hydrated and cool.

  • Weight training: You may want to decrease the duration or frequency of your workout, depending on how you’re feeling. You may also be more comfortable with lighter weights. If you use free weights, be very careful to avoid blunt injury to the abdomen from dropping weights. Do not hold your breath during repetitions, and do not lie on your back.
  • Yoga: Now that you’re at the end of your second trimester, you may need extra balance support when doing standing poses. Avoid poses that stretch the abdominal muscles or that require you to lie on your back. Bend from your hips. If you feel discomfort, stop and reevaluate if there’s an easier way to do the position.

Month-by-month guidelines for exercise during the second trimester are given below:

4th Month

  • Weight training: As you begin your second trimester, your total blood volume has increased and the placenta and baby are growing. When you stand, blood can pool in your legs, causing you to become lightheaded or dizzy. For this reason it may be safer to do weight training exercises while seated. Always keep your breath steady during weight training to avoid straining your muscles and blood vessels.
  • Jogging and running: If you are a runner, you can safely continue to run in moderation. During your second trimester your uterus gets larger, causing your center of gravity to shift. This change makes you more likely to lose your balance. Run on flat ground with as few obstacles as possible.
  • Yoga: As you slowly get bigger and your joints loosen, your balance may be affected, putting you at risk of injury. Pay attention to your body and only do as much exercise as is comfortable. Your breathing should stay smooth, and if you find you cannot breathe easily and smoothly during positions, think about shifting into an easier version of the position, stretching or extending less, or staying closer to the floor. You may also wish to use a chair or wall for balance during standing poses. Leg lifts, back bends, lying on the belly, and poses that stress the abdomen or pelvic floor should also be avoided or modified by a teacher trained in prenatal yoga techniques (Plakans, n.d.).
  • Swimming and Water Aerobics: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you are new to swimming, start slowly by swimming gently for short periods of time, taking caution not to overexert yourself. Work up to longer workouts if you desire. Moderate water aerobics may also be helpful for previously inactive women (Baciuk, Pereira, Cecatti, Braga, & Cavalcante, 2008). This activity may even reduce your desire for analgesia during labor.

5th Month

As your belly gets bigger, you may find that your center of gravity has shifted and you’re not as agile as you once were. Compensate by being more careful when you step. When you reach 20 weeks, you should stop exercises that require you to lie on your back (like some weight lifting or yoga poses). As your uterus increases in size, lying on your back can put pressure on the inferior vena cava, the large vein that runs vertically the length of your abdomen and is responsible for returning blood to the heart.

  • Walking: As your gait changes because of the changes in your body shape, be sure to focus on your posture when walking and keep your hips tucked under to prevent arching your back due to the increasing amount of weight you’re carrying in front. When you feel out of breath, slow down or stop and rest. You shouldn’t be huffing and puffing.
  • Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.
  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

6th Month

Your blood volume increases by 40 percent during pregnancy and your cardiac output (heart rate times the amount of blood pumped per beat) increases by 30­–40 percent. During exercise, your heart rate increases even more. Although research shows that women who exercise regularly have no increased risk of problems with their pregnancies, the key is still moderation. Don’t push yourself too hard. Keep yourself hydrated and cool.

  • Weight training: You may want to decrease the duration or frequency of your workout, depending on how you’re feeling. You may also be more comfortable with lighter weights. If you use free weights, be very careful to avoid blunt injury to the abdomen from dropping weights. Do not hold your breath during repetitions, and do not lie on your back.
  • Yoga: Now that you’re at the end of your second trimester, you may need extra balance support when doing standing poses. Avoid poses that stretch the abdominal muscles or that require you to lie on your back. Bend from your hips. If you feel discomfort, stop and reevaluate if there’s an easier way to do the position.

Month-by-month guidelines for exercise during the second trimester are given below:

4th Month

  • Weight training: As you begin your second trimester, your total blood volume has increased and the placenta and baby are growing. When you stand, blood can pool in your legs, causing you to become lightheaded or dizzy. For this reason it may be safer to do weight training exercises while seated. Always keep your breath steady during weight training to avoid straining your muscles and blood vessels.
  • Jogging and running: If you are a runner, you can safely continue to run in moderation. During your second trimester your uterus gets larger, causing your center of gravity to shift. This change makes you more likely to lose your balance. Run on flat ground with as few obstacles as possible.
  • Yoga: As you slowly get bigger and your joints loosen, your balance may be affected, putting you at risk of injury. Pay attention to your body and only do as much exercise as is comfortable. Your breathing should stay smooth, and if you find you cannot breathe easily and smoothly during positions, think about shifting into an easier version of the position, stretching or extending less, or staying closer to the floor. You may also wish to use a chair or wall for balance during standing poses. Leg lifts, back bends, lying on the belly, and poses that stress the abdomen or pelvic floor should also be avoided or modified by a teacher trained in prenatal yoga techniques (Plakans, n.d.).
  • Swimming and Water Aerobics: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you are new to swimming, start slowly by swimming gently for short periods of time, taking caution not to overexert yourself. Work up to longer workouts if you desire. Moderate water aerobics may also be helpful for previously inactive women (Baciuk, Pereira, Cecatti, Braga, & Cavalcante, 2008). This activity may even reduce your desire for analgesia during labor.

5th Month

As your belly gets bigger, you may find that your center of gravity has shifted and you’re not as agile as you once were. Compensate by being more careful when you step. When you reach 20 weeks, you should stop exercises that require you to lie on your back (like some weight lifting or yoga poses). As your uterus increases in size, lying on your back can put pressure on the inferior vena cava, the large vein that runs vertically the length of your abdomen and is responsible for returning blood to the heart.

  • Walking: As your gait changes because of the changes in your body shape, be sure to focus on your posture when walking and keep your hips tucked under to prevent arching your back due to the increasing amount of weight you’re carrying in front. When you feel out of breath, slow down or stop and rest. You shouldn’t be huffing and puffing.
  • Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.
  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

6th Month

Your blood volume increases by 40 percent during pregnancy and your cardiac output (heart rate times the amount of blood pumped per beat) increases by 30­–40 percent. During exercise, your heart rate increases even more. Although research shows that women who exercise regularly have no increased risk of problems with their pregnancies, the key is still moderation. Don’t push yourself too hard. Keep yourself hydrated and cool.

  • Weight training: You may want to decrease the duration or frequency of your workout, depending on how you’re feeling. You may also be more comfortable with lighter weights. If you use free weights, be very careful to avoid blunt injury to the abdomen from dropping weights. Do not hold your breath during repetitions, and do not lie on your back.
  • Yoga: Now that you’re at the end of your second trimester, you may need extra balance support when doing standing poses. Avoid poses that stretch the abdominal muscles or that require you to lie on your back. Bend from your hips. If you feel discomfort, stop and reevaluate if there’s an easier way to do the position.

Month-by-month guidelines for exercise during the second trimester are given below:

4th Month

  • Weight training: As you begin your second trimester, your total blood volume has increased and the placenta and baby are growing. When you stand, blood can pool in your legs, causing you to become lightheaded or dizzy. For this reason it may be safer to do weight training exercises while seated. Always keep your breath steady during weight training to avoid straining your muscles and blood vessels.
  • Jogging and running: If you are a runner, you can safely continue to run in moderation. During your second trimester your uterus gets larger, causing your center of gravity to shift. This change makes you more likely to lose your balance. Run on flat ground with as few obstacles as possible.
  • Yoga: As you slowly get bigger and your joints loosen, your balance may be affected, putting you at risk of injury. Pay attention to your body and only do as much exercise as is comfortable. Your breathing should stay smooth, and if you find you cannot breathe easily and smoothly during positions, think about shifting into an easier version of the position, stretching or extending less, or staying closer to the floor. You may also wish to use a chair or wall for balance during standing poses. Leg lifts, back bends, lying on the belly, and poses that stress the abdomen or pelvic floor should also be avoided or modified by a teacher trained in prenatal yoga techniques (Plakans, n.d.).
  • Swimming and Water Aerobics: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you are new to swimming, start slowly by swimming gently for short periods of time, taking caution not to overexert yourself. Work up to longer workouts if you desire. Moderate water aerobics may also be helpful for previously inactive women (Baciuk, Pereira, Cecatti, Braga, & Cavalcante, 2008). This activity may even reduce your desire for analgesia during labor.

5th Month

As your belly gets bigger, you may find that your center of gravity has shifted and you’re not as agile as you once were. Compensate by being more careful when you step. When you reach 20 weeks, you should stop exercises that require you to lie on your back (like some weight lifting or yoga poses). As your uterus increases in size, lying on your back can put pressure on the inferior vena cava, the large vein that runs vertically the length of your abdomen and is responsible for returning blood to the heart.

  • Walking: As your gait changes because of the changes in your body shape, be sure to focus on your posture when walking and keep your hips tucked under to prevent arching your back due to the increasing amount of weight you’re carrying in front. When you feel out of breath, slow down or stop and rest. You shouldn’t be huffing and puffing.
  • Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.
  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

6th Month

Your blood volume increases by 40 percent during pregnancy and your cardiac output (heart rate times the amount of blood pumped per beat) increases by 30­–40 percent. During exercise, your heart rate increases even more. Although research shows that women who exercise regularly have no increased risk of problems with their pregnancies, the key is still moderation. Don’t push yourself too hard. Keep yourself hydrated and cool.

  • Weight training: You may want to decrease the duration or frequency of your workout, depending on how you’re feeling. You may also be more comfortable with lighter weights. If you use free weights, be very careful to avoid blunt injury to the abdomen from dropping weights. Do not hold your breath during repetitions, and do not lie on your back.
  • Yoga: Now that you’re at the end of your second trimester, you may need extra balance support when doing standing poses. Avoid poses that stretch the abdominal muscles or that require you to lie on your back. Bend from your hips. If you feel discomfort, stop and reevaluate if there’s an easier way to do the position.

Month-by-month guidelines for exercise during the second trimester are given below:

4th Month

  • Weight training: As you begin your second trimester, your total blood volume has increased and the placenta and baby are growing. When you stand, blood can pool in your legs, causing you to become lightheaded or dizzy. For this reason it may be safer to do weight training exercises while seated. Always keep your breath steady during weight training to avoid straining your muscles and blood vessels.
  • Jogging and running: If you are a runner, you can safely continue to run in moderation. During your second trimester your uterus gets larger, causing your center of gravity to shift. This change makes you more likely to lose your balance. Run on flat ground with as few obstacles as possible.
  • Yoga: As you slowly get bigger and your joints loosen, your balance may be affected, putting you at risk of injury. Pay attention to your body and only do as much exercise as is comfortable. Your breathing should stay smooth, and if you find you cannot breathe easily and smoothly during positions, think about shifting into an easier version of the position, stretching or extending less, or staying closer to the floor. You may also wish to use a chair or wall for balance during standing poses. Leg lifts, back bends, lying on the belly, and poses that stress the abdomen or pelvic floor should also be avoided or modified by a teacher trained in prenatal yoga techniques (Plakans, n.d.).
  • Swimming and Water Aerobics: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you are new to swimming, start slowly by swimming gently for short periods of time, taking caution not to overexert yourself. Work up to longer workouts if you desire. Moderate water aerobics may also be helpful for previously inactive women (Baciuk, Pereira, Cecatti, Braga, & Cavalcante, 2008). This activity may even reduce your desire for analgesia during labor.

5th Month

As your belly gets bigger, you may find that your center of gravity has shifted and you’re not as agile as you once were. Compensate by being more careful when you step. When you reach 20 weeks, you should stop exercises that require you to lie on your back (like some weight lifting or yoga poses). As your uterus increases in size, lying on your back can put pressure on the inferior vena cava, the large vein that runs vertically the length of your abdomen and is responsible for returning blood to the heart.

  • Walking: As your gait changes because of the changes in your body shape, be sure to focus on your posture when walking and keep your hips tucked under to prevent arching your back due to the increasing amount of weight you’re carrying in front. When you feel out of breath, slow down or stop and rest. You shouldn’t be huffing and puffing.
  • Yoga: As your pregnancy progresses and has a larger impact on your activity, think about joining a yoga class specifically for pregnant women or buying a book or video of yoga poses that are safe for pregnant women.
  • Swimming: If you are a swimmer, you should be able to continue swimming into your second trimester without any difficulty. If you begin to get short of breath during swims, try slowing your pace and staying near the edge or shallow end of the pool.

6th Month

Your blood volume increases by 40 percent during pregnancy and your cardiac output (heart rate times the amount of blood pumped per beat) increases by 30­–40 percent. During exercise, your heart rate increases even more. Although research shows that women who exercise regularly have no increased risk of problems with their pregnancies, the key is still moderation. Don’t push yourself too hard. Keep yourself hydrated and cool.

  • Weight training: You may want to decrease the duration or frequency of your workout, depending on how you’re feeling. You may also be more comfortable with lighter weights. If you use free weights, be very careful to avoid blunt injury to the abdomen from dropping weights. Do not hold your breath during repetitions, and do not lie on your back.
  • Yoga: Now that you’re at the end of your second trimester, you may need extra balance support when doing standing poses. Avoid poses that stretch the abdominal muscles or that require you to lie on your back. Bend from your hips. If you feel discomfort, stop and reevaluate if there’s an easier way to do the position.

IMPORTANCIA DE LA TEMPERATURA CORPORAL AL EJERCITARTE

Sabemos que el ejercicio incrementa la temperatura corporal y es muy importante que no aumente demasiado (si sudas profusamente puedes saber que se ha subido) pues puede ser peligroso para tu bebé.

 

Mantenla en un nivel moderado.

¿POR QUÉ HAY PELIGRO DE SOBRECALENTAMIENTO AL HACER EJERCICIO?

A pesar de que no hay estudios realizados en humanos, se ha observado en los animales que un incremento de la temperatura corporal, sobre todo en el primer trimestre del embarazo, puede causar malformaciones en el bebé.

Por eso, se sugiere evitar saunas y baños muy calientes en los primeros meses del embarazo, debido a que aumentan la temperatura de la mamá.

¿Qué temperatura corporal se considera demasiado alta? Sobrepasar los 38ºC de temperatura, tomada en la axila, después de realizar ejercicio empieza a considerarse peligroso.

¿CÓMO MANTENER LA TEMPERATURA A UN NIVEL SEGURO?

  • No hagas ejercicio durante largos periodos si hace mucho calor o la humedad es adecuada
  • Lleva ropa adecuada para el ejercicio
  • Toma todos los líquidos que puedas dos horas antes del ejercicio y durante su práctica.
  • Comprueba que no estés realizando ejercicios demasiado duros controlando los latidos de tu corazón

¿CUÁNDO DEBO EVITAR EL EJERCICIO?

A veces, realizar ejercicio físico durante el embarazo está completamente contraindicado para proteger la salud de la madre, el bebé o ambos.

Consulta con tu médico antes de empezar o continuar ningún ejercicio. Los siguientes son algunos de estos problemas:

  • Cuando tienes la presión arterial elevada a causa del embarazo. La toxemia, es decir, la tensión alta por causa del embarazo, es un importante problema de la circulación sanguínea que el ejercicio puede agravar.
  • Si tienes asma.
  • Si estabas obesa antes del embarazo.
  • Si estabas baja de peso antes del embarazo.
  • Si fumabas mucho o fumas.
  • Si tienes problemas en articulaciones
  • Si tu embarazo es múltiple.
  • Si tu diabetes no está controlada.
  • Si tienes placenta previa.
  • Si has tenido sangrado vaginal durante el primer trimestre o en el segundo.
  • Si ya has tenido un parto prematuro anterior: debes ser extremadamente cauta al realizar ejercicios físicos.
  • Los más adecuados son la natación suave, el yoga y la gimnasia suave, así como andar.
  • Si estás anémica: Las mujeres con anemia que quieran continuar con el ejercicio deben tomar una dieta rica en hierro, conjuntamente con vitamina C para incrementar su absorción.
  • Cuando hay retraso del crecimiento intrauterino: Es posible que el bebé no esté creciendo al ritmo que debiera por un bajo aporte de oxígeno.
  • Como el ejercicio hace que la sangre, y con ella el oxígeno, se desvíe hacia otras partes del cuerpo, es preferible limitar su intensidad ya que al bebé puede verse afectado seriamente.
  • Cuando tienes problemas de corazón: el ejercicio sólo se debería realizar bajo la supervisión de un cardiólogo o un médico especialista.

¿CÓMO PUEDO SABER SI ESTOY HACIENDO DEMASIADO EJERCICIO?

Escucha a tu cuerpo. Puede pedirte que te detengas o que vayas más despacio.

En general, no debes cansarte hasta el agotamiento.

Cuenta los latidos durante 10 segundos, y procura que no sobrepasen los 25. Si puedes charlar normalmente mientras estás haciendo ejercicio, lo haces bien. Si no es así, para o baja la intensidad.

Para inmediatamente si te sientes mareada, te falta el aliento, tienes pérdidas vaginales, te cuesta andar, tienes contracciones o notas algo raro en el bebé.

SIEMPRE REALIZA TUS EJERCICIOS DE KEGEL

Los ejercicios de Kegel DEBEN ser parte de tu rutina diaria a partir del segundo trimestre.

Durante los últimos meses del embarazo, el útero en crecimiento va a volver a presionar tu vejiga lo que hará que tengas necesidad de orinar más frecuentemente.

Es absolutamente necesario que continúes hidratándote bien.

Una mejor solución es hacer los ejercicios de Kegel que te ayudarán a fortalecer los músculos del piso alrededor de la uretra. Son muy sencillos:

  • Contrae los músculos de tu vagina, uretra y ano como si estuvieras tratando de detener el chorro de orina. Detén por 5 ó 7 segundos y suelta. Repite 10 a 20 veces por día.

¿CUÁLES SON LOS BENEFICIOS DEL EJERCICIO EN EL EMBARAZO?

Si eres constante en el ejercicio, serás más ágil al final del embarazo comparada con otras mamás y tendrás menos dolores o molestias.

¡Un buen tono muscular y un sistema cardiovascular tonificado son importantes para disminuir el estrés del embarazo y prepararte para las demandas del momento de labor de parto, el nacimiento y…! el bebé!

  • El ejercicio te ayuda para el cansancio del embarazo, te da energía y produces hormonas que te ayudan a sentirte bien.
  • Ayuda con el estreñimiento.
  • Aumenta el tamaño de la placenta fetal. Tu bebé está muy bien nutrido porque te ejercitas.
  • Te prepara para enfrentarte mejor a los cambios que ocurren en el segundo y tercer trimestre.
  • El ejercicio previene el aumento de peso excesivo.

REFERENCIAS

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